Sometimes it's easy to forget that there were people here before the Romans. But they were here, leaving echoes of their lives and beliefs through place names, 5,800-year-old tools and 2,000-year-old weapons. When the Romans first encountered us 2,000 years ago, they wrote down some of the things they discovered. They said that there was a people in northern Cumbria called the Carvetii, 'the deer people', who were a sub-group of a large northern tribe called the Brigantes – at least that's what the Romans called them; we don't know what they called themselves – and we had a number of local gods.
The Romans had an impressively egalitarian approach to the religions they encountered as they travelled the world. They believed the same set of gods was present everywhere but just known by different names. When they came across a native god, they looked in their own pantheon for the Roman equivalent, which is how Lugus – after whom Carlisle is named – came to be seen as a different name for their own god, Mercury. Every native god in turn was partnered with its Roman equivalent, and this is how we get to hear about the northern British god, Cocidius.
There are no less than nine carved images and 25 inscribed dedications to Cocidius on Hadrian's Wall, some from Netherby and Carlisle and others found by Cumberland Quarries (exact site unknown). There are no less than six inscriptions from Bewcastle fort in Cumbria, where he is described as 'Mars Cocidius', which means the owner of the altar believed that Cocidius was the native name for the Roman god of war, Mars. Two silver plaques found at Bewcastle show Cocidius wearing a helmet and holding a shield and a club or spear.
The Ravenna Cosmography – a 7th-century summary of all towns that had been in the Roman empire – mentions Fanum Cocidius, which means Cocidius's Temple. It says that it was between Maia (Bowness-on-Solway) and Brovacum (Brougham). Given this description and the number of inscriptions found, it's tempting to believe that this site was Bewcastle.
At the eastern end of Hadrian's wall, Cocidius is linked to forests, and hence to hunting. In an inscription at Ebchester in County Durham, he is 'Cocidius Vernostonus' – Cocidius of the alder tree – and at Housesteads Fort and Risingham, he is 'Sylvanus Cocidius'. Sylvanus was the Roman god of wild forests. An intaglio found at Habitancum Roman Fort on Dere Street at Risingham shows Cocidius surrounded by leafy branches, holding a hare, accompanied by a dog. A further north-eastern image at Yardhope at the tantalisingly-named 'Holystone Burn' (the name pre-dates the discovery of the carving in 1980!) shows Cocidius with hat, spear and shield, legs akimbo, arms wide.
- More to read at Cocidius, the Cumbrian god http://esmeraldamac.wordpress.com/2012/01/30/cocidius-the-cumbrian-god/